Pastries, Pies, Tarts …

PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS – Recipes From Much Earlier Times ~1900s.
 
GENERAL REMARKS
Use the very best materials in making pastry; the shortening should be fresh, sweet and hard; the water cold (ice-water is best), the paste rolled on a cold board and all handled as little as possible. When the crust is made, it makes it much more flaky and puff much more to put it in a dish covered with a cloth and set in a very cold place for half an hour, or even an hour; in summer, it could be placed in the ice box. A great improvement is made in pie crust by the addition of about a heaping teaspoonful of baking powder to a quart of flour, also brushing the paste as often as rolled out, and the pieces of  butter placed thereon, with the white of an egg, assists it to rise in leaves or flakes. As this is the great beauty of puff paste, it is as well to try this method. If currants are to be used in pies, they should be carefully picked over and washed in several waters, dried in a towel and  dredged with flour before they are suitable for use. Raisins, and all dried fruits for pies and cakes, should be seeded stoned and dredged with flour before using. Almonds should be blanched by pouring boiling water upon them and then slipping the skin off with the fingers. In pounding them, always  add a little rose or orange-water, with fine sugar, to prevent their becoming oily. Great care is requisite in heating an oven for baking pastry. If you can hold your hand in the heated oven while you count twenty, the oven has just the proper temperature and it should be kept at this temperature as long as the pastry is in; this heat will bake to a light brown and will give the pastry a fresh and flaky appearance. If you suffer the heat to abate, the under crust will become heavy  and clammy and the upper crust will fall in. Another good way to ascertain when the oven is heated to the proper degree for puff paste: put a small piece of the paste in previous to baking the whole, and then the heat can thus be judged of. Pie crust can be kept a week, and the last be better than the if put in a tightly covered dish and set in the ice chest in summer and  in a cool place in winter, and thus you can make a fresh pie every  day with little trouble. In baking custard, pumpkin or squash pies, it is well, in order that the mixture may not be absorbed by the paste, to first partly bake the paste before adding it, and when stewed fruit is used the filling should be perfectly cool when put in, or it will make the bottom crust sodden.
HOW TO MAKE A PIE
After making the crust, take a portion of it, roll it out and fit it to a buttered pie-plate by cutting it off evenly around the edge; gather up the scraps left from cutting and make into another  sheet for the top crust; roll it a little thinner than the under crust; lap one-half over the other and cut three or four slits about a quarter of an inch from the folded edge (this prevents the steam from escaping through the rim of the pie, and causing the juices to run out from the edges). Now fill your pie-plate with your prepared filling, wet the top edge of the rim, lay the upper crust across the centre of the pie, turn back the half that is lapped over, seal the two edges together by slightly pressing down with your thumb, then notch evenly and regularly with a three-tined fork, dipping occasionally in flour to prevent sticking. Bake in a rather quick oven a light brown, and until the filling boils up through the slits in the upper crust. To prevent the juice soaking through into the crust, making it  soggy wet the under crust with the white of an egg, just before you put  in the pie mixture. If the top of the pie is brushed over with the egg, it gives it a beautiful glaze.
FOR ICING PASTRY
To ice pastry, which is the usual method adopted for fruit tarts andsweet dishes of pastry, put the white of an egg on a plate and with the blade of a knife beat it to a stiff froth. When the pastry is nearly baked, brush it over with this and sift over some pounded sugar; put it back into the oven to set the glaze and in a few  minutes it will be done. Great care should be taken that the paste does not catch or burn in the oven, which is very liable to do after the icing is laid on. Or make a meringue by adding a tablespoonful of white sugar to the beaten white of one egg. Spread over the top and slightly brown in theoven.
FINE PUFF PASTE
Into one quart of sifted flour mix two teaspoonfuls of baking powder and a teaspoonful of salt; _then sift again. Measure out one teacupful of butter and one of lard, hard and cold. Take the lard  and rub into the flour until a very fine smooth paste. Then put in just enough ice-water, say half a cupful, containing a beaten white of egg, to mix a very stiff dough. Boll it out into a thin sheet,  spread with one-fourth of the butter, sprinkle over with a little flour, then roll up closely in a long roll, like a scroll, double the ends towards the centre, flatten and re-roll, then spread again with another quarter of the butter. Repeat this operation until the butter is used up. Put it on an earthen dish, cover it with a cloth and set it in a cold place, in the ice box in summer; let it remain until cold an hour or more before making out the crust. Tarts made with this paste cannot be cut with a knife when fresh; they go into flakes at the touch. You may roll this pastry in any direction, from you, toward you, sideways, any way, it matters not, but you must have nice flour, ice-water and very little of it, and strength to roll it, if you would succeed.
PUFF PASTE FOR PIES
One quart of pastry flour, one pint of butter, one tablespoonful of salt, one of sugar, one and a quarter cupfuls of ice-water. Wash the hands with soap and water and dip them first in very hot and then in cold water. Rinse a large bowl or pan with boiling water and then with cold. Half fill it with cold water. Wash the butter in this, working it with the hands until it is light and waxy. This frees it from the salt and buttermilk and lightens it, so that the pastry is more delicate. Shape the butter into two thin cakes and put in a pan of ice-water to harden. Mix the salt and sugar with the flour. With the hands, rub one-third of the butter into the flour. Add the water, stirring with a knife. Stir quickly and vigorously until the paste is a smooth ball. Sprinkle the board _lightly_ with flour. Turn the paste on this and pound quickly and lightly with the rolling pin. Do not break the paste. Roll from you and to one side; or if easier to roll from you all the time, turn the paste around. When it is about one-fourth of an inch thick, wipe the remaining butter, break it in bits and spread these on the paste. Sprinkle lightly with flour. Fold the paste, one-third from each side, so that the edges meet.  Now fold from the ends, but do not have these meet. Double the paste, pound lightly and roll down to about one-third of an inch in thickness. Fold as before and roll down again. Repeat this three times if for pies and six times if for vol-au-vents, patties, tarts, etc. Place on the  ice to harden, when it has been rolled the last time. It should be in the ice chest at least an hour before being used. In hot weather, if the paste sticks when being rolled down, put it on a tin sheet and place on ice. As soon as it is chilled, it will roll easily. The less flour you use in rolling out the paste, the tenderer it will be. No matter how carefully every part of the work may be done, the paste will not be good if much flour is used.
SOYER’S RECIPE FOR PUFF PASTE
To every pound of flour allow the yolk of one egg, the juice of one lemon, half a saltspoonful of salt, cold water, one pound of fresh butter. Put the flour onto the paste-board; make a hole in the centre, into which put the yolk of the egg, the lemon juice and salt; mix the whole with cold water (this should be iced in summer if convenient) into a soft, flexible paste with the right hand, and handle it as little as possible; then squeeze all the buttermilk from the butter, wring it in a cloth and roll out the paste; place the butter on this and fold the edges of the paste over, so as to hide it; roll it out again to the thickness of a quarter of an inch; fold over one-third, over which again pass the rolling-pin; then fold over the other third, thus forming a square; place it with the ends, top and bottom before you, shaking a little flour both under and over, and repeat the rolls and turns twice again as before. Flour a baking-sheet, put the paste on this and let it remain on ice or in some cool place for half an hour; then roll twice more, turning it as before; place it again upon the ice for a quarter of an hour, give it two more rolls, making seven in all, and it is ready for use when required.
RULE FOR UNDER CRUST
A good rule for pie crust for a pie requiring only an under crust, as a custard or pumpkin pie, is: Three large tablespoonfuls of flour sifted, rubbing into it a _large_ tablespoonful of cold butter, or part butter and part lard, and a pinch of salt, mixing with  cold water enough to form a smooth, stiff paste, and rolled quite thin.
PLAIN PIE CRUST
Two and a half cupfuls of sifted flour, one cupful of shortening, half butter and half lard cold, a pinch of salt, a heaping teaspoonful of baking powder sifted through the flour. Rub thoroughly the shortening into the flour. Mix together with half a teacupful of cold water, or enough to form a rather stiff dough; mix as little as possible, just enough to get it into shape to roll out; it must be handled very lightly. This rule is for two pies. When you have a little pie crust left do not throw it away; roll it thin, cut in small squares and bake. Just before tea put a spoonful of raspberry jelly on each square.
PUFF PASTE OF SUET
Two cupfuls of flour, one-half teaspoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of baking powder, one cup of chopped suet, freed of skin, and chopped very fine, one cupful of water. Place the flour, sifted with the powder in a bowl, add suet and water; mix into smooth, rather firm dough. This paste is excellent for fruit puddings and dumplings that are boiled; if it is well made, it will be light and flaky and the suet impreceptible. It is also excellent for meat pies, baked or boiled. All the ingredients should be very cold when mixing, and the suet dredged with flour after it is chopped, to prevent the particles from adhering to each other.
POTATO CRUST
Boil and mash a dozen medium-sized potatoes, add one good teaspoonful of salt, two tablespoonfuls of cold butter and half a cupful of milk or cream. Stiffen with flour sufficient to roll out. Nice for the tops of meat pies.
TO MAKE PIE CRUST FLAKY
In making a pie, after you have rolled out your top crust, cut it about the right size, spread it over with butter, then shake sifted flour over the butter, enough to cover it well. Cut a slit in the middle place it over the top of your pie, and fasten the edges as any pie. Now take the pie on your left hand and a dipper of cold water in your right hand; tip the pie slanting a little, pour over the water sufficiently to rinse off the flour. Enough flour will stick to the butter to fry into the crust, to give it a fine, blistered, flaky look, which many cooks think is much better than rolling the butter into the crust.
TARTLETS. No. 1
Tarts of strawberry or any other kind of preserves are generally made of the trimmings of puff paste rolled a little thicker than the ordinary pies; then cut out with a round cutter, first dipped in hot water, to make the edges smooth, and placed in small tart pans, first pricking a few holes at the bottom with a fork before placing them in the oven. Bake from ten to fifteen minutes. Let the paste cool a little; then fill it with preserve. By this manner, both the flavor and color of the jam are preserved, which would be lost were it baked in the oven on the paste; and, besides, so much jam is not required.
TARTLETS. No. 2
Tartlets are nice made in this manner: Roll some good puff paste out thin, and cut it into two and a half inch squares; brush each square over with the white of an egg, then fold down the corners, that they all meet in the middle of each piece of paste; slightly press the two pieces together, brush them over with the egg, sift over sugar and bake in a nice quick oven for about a quarter of an hour. When they are done, make a little hole in the middle of the paste and fill it up with apricot jam, marmalade, or red currant jelly. Pile them high in the centre of a dish on a napkin and garnish with the same preserves the tartlets are filled with.
PATTIES, OR SHELLS FOR TARTS
Roll out a nice puff paste thin; cut out with a glass or cooki cutter and with a wine-glass or smaller cutter, cut out the centre of two out of three; lay the rings thus made on the third, and bake at once. May be used for veal or oyster patties, or filled with jelly, jam or preserves, as tarts. Or shells may be made by lining patty-pans with paste. If the paste is light, the shells will be fine. Filled with jelly and covered with meringue (tablespoonful of sugar to the white of one egg) and browned in oven, they are very nice to serve for tea. If the cutters are dipped in hot water, the edges of the tartlets will rise much higher and smoother when baking.
TARTS
Larger pans are required for tarts proper, the size of small, shallow pie-tins; then after the paste is baked and cooled and filled with the jam or preserve, a few stars or leaves are placed on the top, or strips of paste, criss-crossed on the top, all of which have been previously baked on a tin by themselves. Dried fruit, stewed until thick, makes fine tart pies, also cranberries stewed and well sweetened.
GREEN APPLE PIE
Peel, core and slice tart apples enough for a pie; sprinkle over about three tablespoonfuls of sugar, a teaspoonful of cinnamon, a small level tablespoonful of sifted flour, two tablespoonfuls of water, a few bits of butter, stir all together with a spoon; put it into a pie-tin lined with pie paste; cover with a top crust and bake about forty minutes. The result will be a delicious, juicy pie.
APPLE CUSTARD PIE. No. 1
Three cupfuls of milk, four eggs and one cupful of sugar, two cupfuls of thick stewed apples, strained through a colander. Beat the whites and yolks of the eggs lightly and mix the yolks well with the apples, flavoring with nutmeg. Then beat into this the milk and, lastly, the whites. Let the crust partly bake before turning in this filling. To be baked with only the one crust, like all custard pies.
APPLE CUSTARD PIE. No. 2
Select fair sweet apples, pare and grate them, and to every teacupful of the apple add two eggs well beaten, two tablespoonfuls of fine sugar, one of melted butter, the grated rind and half the juice of one lemon, half a wine-glass of brandy and one teacupful of milk; mix all well and pour into a deep plate lined with paste; put a strip of the paste around the edge of the dish and bake thirty minutes.
APPLE CUSTARD PIE. No. 3
Lay a crust in your plates; slice apples thin and half fill your plates; pour over them a custard made of four eggs and one quart of milk, sweetened and seasoned to your taste.
APPLE CUSTARD PIE. No. 4
Peel sour apples and stew until soft, and not much water left in them; then rub through a colander; beat three eggs for each pie to be baked and put in at the rate of one cupful of butter and one of sugar for three pies; season with nutmeg.
IRISH APPLE PIE
Pare and take out the cores of the apples, cutting each apple into four or eight pieces, according to their size. Lay them neatly in a baking dish, seasoning them with brown sugar and any spice, such as pounded cloves and cinnamon, or grated lemon peel. A little quince marmalade gives a fine flavor to the pie. Add a little water and cover with puff paste. Bake for an hour.
MOCK APPLE PIE
Crush finely with a rolling pin, one large Boston cracker; put it into a bowl and pour upon it one teacupful of cold water; add one teacupful of fine white sugar, the juice and pulp of one lemon, half a lemon rind grated and a little nutmeg; line the pie-plate with half puff paste, pour in the mixture, cover with the paste and bake half an hour. These are proportions for one pie.
APPLE AND PEACH MERINGUE PIE
Stew the apples or peaches and sweeten to taste. Mash smooth and season with nutmeg. Fill the crusts and bake until just done. Put on no top crust. Take the whites of three eggs for each pie and  whip to a stiff froth, and sweeten with three tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar. Flavor with rose-water or vanilla; beat until it will stand alone; then spread it on the pie one-half to one inch thick; set it back into the oven until the meringue is well “set.” Eat cold.
COCOANUT PIE. No. 1
One-half cup desiccated cocoanut soaked in one cupful of milk, two eggs, one small cupful of sugar, butter the size of an egg. This is for one small-sized pie. Nice with a meringue on top.
COCOANUT PIE. No. 2
Cut off the brown part of the cocoanut, grate the white part, mix it with milk and set it on the fire and let it boil slowly eight or ten minutes. To a pound of the grated cocoanut, allow a quart of milk, eight eggs, four tablespoonfuls of sifted white sugar, a glass of wine, a small cracker, pounded fine, two spoonfuls of melted butter and half a nutmeg. The eggs and sugar should be beaten together to a froth, then the wine stirred in. Put them into the milk and cocoanut, which should be first allowed to get quite cool; add the cracker and nutmeg, turn the whole into deep pie plates, with a lining and rim of puff paste. Bake them as soon as turned into the plates.
CHOCOLATE CUSTARD PIE. No. 1
One-quarter cake of Baker’s chocolate, grated; one pint of boiling water, six eggs, one quart of milk, one-half cupful of white sugar, two teaspoonfuls of vanilla. Dissolve the chocolate in a very little milk, stir into the boiling water and boil three minutes. When nearly cold beat up with this the yolks of all the eggs and the whites of three. Stir this mixture into the milk, season and pour into shells of good paste. When the custard is “set”– but not more than half done – spread over it the whites whipped to a froth, with two tablespoonfuls of sugar. You may bake these custards without paste, in a pudding dish or cups set in boiling water.
CHOCOLATE PIE. No. 2
Put some grated chocolate into a basin and place on the back of the stove and let it melt (do not add any water to it); beat one egg and some sugar in it; when melted, spread this on the top of a custard pie. Lovers of chocolate will like this.
LEMON PIE. No. 1. (Superior.)
Take a deep dish, grate into it the outside of the rind of two lemons; add to that a cup and a half of white sugar, two heaping tablespoonfuls of unsifted flour, or one of cornstarch; stir it well together, then add the yolks of three well-beaten eggs, beat this thoroughly, then add the juice of the lemons, two cups of water and a piece of butter the size of a walnut. Set this on the fire in  another dish containing boiling water and cook it until it thickens, and will dip up on the spoon like cold honey. Remove from the fire, and when cooled, pour it into a deep pie-tin, lined with pastry; bake, and when done, have ready the whites, beaten stiff, with three small tablespoonfuls of sugar. Spread this over the top and return to the oven, to set and brown slightly. This makes a deep, large sized pie, and very superior.
LEMON PIE. No. 2
One coffee cupful of sugar, three eggs, one cupful of water, one tablespoonful of melted butter, one heaping tablespoonful of flour, the juice and a little of the rind of one lemon. Reserve the whites of the eggs, and after the pie is baked, spread them over the top beaten lightly-with a spoonful of sugar, and return to the oven until it is a light brown. This may be cooked before it is put into the crust or not, but it is rather better to cook it first in a double boiler or dish. It makes a medium-sized pie. Bake from thirty-five to forty minutes.
LEMON PIE. No. 3
a heaping tablespoonful of cornstarch with a little cold water, then add a cupful of boiling water; stir over the fire till it boils and cook the cornstarch, say two or three minutes; add teaspoonful of butter and a cupful of sugar; take off the fire and, when slightly cooled, add an egg well beaten and the juice and grated rind of a fresh lemon. Bake with a crust. This makes one small pie.
LEMON PIE. No. 4
Two large, fresh lemons, grate off the rind, if not bitter reserve it for the filling of the pie, pare off every bit of the white skin of the lemon (as it toughens while cooking); then cut the lemon into very thin slices with a sharp knife and take out the seeds; two cupfuls of sugar, three tablespoonfuls of water and two of sifted flour. Put into the pie a layer of lemon, then one of sugar, then one of the grated rind and, lastly, of flour, and so on till the ingredients are used; sprinkle the water over all, and cover with upper crust. Be sure to have the under crust lap over the upper, and pinch it well, as the syrup will cook all out if care is not taken when finishing the edge of crust. This quantity makes one medium-sized pie.
ORANGE PIE
Grate the rind of one and use the juice of two large oranges. Stir together a large cupful of sugar and a heaping tablespoonful of flour; add to this the well-beaten yolks of three eggs, two tablespoonfuls of melted butter. Reserve the whites for frosting. Turn this into a pie-pan lined with pie paste and bake in a quick oven. When done so as to resemble a finely baked custard, spread on the top of it the beaten whites, which must be sweetened with two tablespoonfuls of sugar; spread evenly and return to the oven and brown slightly. The addition of the juice of half a lemon improves it, if convenient to have it.
BAKERS’ CUSTARD PIE
Beat up the yolks of three eggs to a cream. Stir thoroughly a tablespoonful of sifted flour into three tablespoonfuls of sugar; this separates the particles of flour so that there will be no lumps then add it to the beaten yolks, put in a pinch of salt, a teaspoonful of vanilla and a little grated nutmeg; next the well-beaten whites of the eggs; and, lastly, a pint of scalded milk (not boiled) which has been cooled; mix this in by degrees and turn all into a deep pie-pan lined with puff paste, and bake from twenty-five to thirty minutes. I received this recipe from a celebrated cook in one of our best New York bakeries. I inquired of him “why it was that their custard pies had that look of solidity and smoothness that our home-made pies have not.” He replied, “The secret is the addition of this bit of flour – not that it thickens the custard any to speak of, but prevents the custard from breaking or wheying and gives that smooth appearance when cut.”
CREAM PIE
Pour a pint of cream upon one and a half cupfuls of sugar; let it stand until the whites of three eggs have been beaten to a stiff froth; add this to the cream and beat up thoroughly; grate a little nutmeg over the mixture and bake without an upper crust. If a tablespoonful of sifted flour is added to it, as the above Custard Pie recipe, it would improve it.
WHIPPED CREAM PIE
Line a pie plate with a rich crust and bake quickly in a hot oven. When done, spread with a thin layer of jelly or jam, then whip one cupful of thick sweet cream until it is as light as possible sweeten with powdered sugar and flavor with vanilla; spread over the jelly or jam; set the cream where it will get very cold before whipping.
CUSTARD PIE
Beat together until very light the yolks of four eggs and four tablespoonfuls of sugar, flavor with nutmeg or vanilla; then add the four beaten whites, a pinch of salt and, lastly, a quart of sweet milk; mix well and pour into tins lined with paste. Bake until firm.
BOSTON CREAM PIE
Cream Part. Put on a pint of milk to boil. Break two eggs into a dish and add one cup of sugar and half a cup of flour previously mixed after beating well, stir it into the milk just as the milk commences to boil; add an ounce of butter and keep on stirring one way until it thickens; flavor with vanilla or lemon.

Crust Part. Three eggs beaten separately, one cup of granulated sugar, one and a half cups of sifted flour, one large teaspoonful of baking powder and two tablespoonfuls of milk or water. Divide the batter in half and bake on two medium-sized pie-tins. Bake in a rather quick oven to a straw color. When done and cool, split each one in half with a sharp broad-bladed knife, and spread half the cream between each. Serve cold. The cake part should be flavored the same as the custard.

MOCK CREAM PIE
Take three eggs, one pint of milk, a cupful of sugar, two tablespoonfuls of cornstarch or three of flour; beat the sugar, cornstarch and yolks of the eggs together; after the milk has come to a boil, stir in the mixture and add a pinch of salt and about a teaspoonful of butter. Make crust the same as any pie; bake,  then fill with the custard, grate over a little nutmeg and bake again. Take the whites of the eggs and beat to a stiff froth with two tablespoonfuls of sugar, spread over the top and brown in a quick oven.
FRUIT CUSTARD PIE
Any fruit custard, such as pineapple, banana, can be readily made after the recipe of APPLE CUSTARD PIE.
CHERRY PIE
Line your pie plate with good crust, fill half full with ripe cherries; sprinkle over them about a cupful of sugar, a teaspoonful of sifted flour, dot a few bits of butter over that. Now fill the crust full to the top. Cover with the upper crust and bake. This is one of the best of pies, if made correctly, and the cherries in any case should be stoned.
CURRANT PIE
Make in just the same way as the “Cherry Pie,” unless they are somewhat green, then they should be stewed a little.
RIPE CURRANT PIE
One cupful of mashed ripe currants, one of sugar, two tablespoonfuls of water, one of flour, beaten with the yolks of two eggs. Bake; frost the top with the beaten whites of the eggs and two tablespoonfuls powdered sugar and brown in oven.
GREEN TOMATO PIE
Take medium-sized tomatoes, pare and cut out the stem end. Having your pie-pan lined with paste made as biscuit dough, slice the tomatoes very thin, filling the pan somewhat heaping, then grate over it a nutmeg; put in half a cup of butter and a medium cup of sugar, if the pan is rather deep. Sprinkle a small handful of flour over all, pouring in half a cup of vinegar before adding the top crust.  Bake half an hour in a moderately hot oven, serving hot. Is good; try it.
APRICOT MERINGUE PIE
A canned apricot meringue pie is made by cutting the apricots fine and mixing them with half a cup of sugar and the beaten yolk of an egg; fill the crust and bake. Take from the oven, let it stand for two or three minutes, cover with a meringue made of the beaten white of an egg and one tablespoonful of sugar. Set back in a slow oven until it turns a golden brown. The above pie can be made into a tart without the addition of the meringue by adding criss-cross strips of pastry when the pie is first put into the oven. All of the above are good if made from the dried and stewed apricots instead of the canned and are much cheaper. Stewed dried apricots are a delicious addition to mince meat. They may be used in connection with minced apples, or to the exclusion of the latter.
HUCKLEBERRY PIE
Put a quart of picked huckleberries into a basin of water; take off, whatever floats; take up the berries by the handful, pick out all the stems and unripe berries and put them into a dish; line a buttered pie, dish with a pie paste, put in the berries half an inch deep, and to a quart of berries, put half of a teacupful of brown sugar;  dredge a teaspoonful of flour over, strew a saltspoonful of salt and a little nutmeg grated over; cover the pie, cut a slit in the centre, or make several small incisions on either side of it; press the two crusts together around the edge, trim it off neatly with a sharp knife and bake in a quick oven for three-quarters of an hour.
BLACKBERRY PIE
Pick the berries clean, rinse them in cold water and finish as directed for huckleberries.
MOLASSES PIE
Two teacupfuls of molasses; one of sugar, three eggs, one tablespoonful of melted butter, one lemon, nutmeg; beat and bake in pastry.
LEMON RAISIN PIE
One cup of chopped raisins, seeded, and the juice and grated rind of one lemon, one cupful of cold water, one tablespoonful of flour, one cupful of sugar, two tablespoonfuls of butter. Stir lightly together and bake with upper and under crust.
RHUBARB PIE
Cut the large stalks off where the leaves commence, strip off the outside skin, then cut the stalks in pieces half an inch long; line a pie dish with paste rolled rather thicker than a dollar piece, put a layer of the rhubarb nearly an inch deep; to a quart bowl of cut rhubarb put a large teacupful of sugar; strew it over with a saltspoonful of salt and a little nutmeg grated; shake over a little flour; cover with a rich pie crust, cut a slit in the centre, trim off the edge with a sharp knife and bake in a quick oven until the pie loosens from the dish. Rhubarb pies made in this way are altogether superior to those made of the fruit stewed.
RHUBARB PIE (Cooked.)
Skin the stalks, cut them into small pieces, wash and put them in a stewpan with no more water than what adheres to them; when cooked, mash them fine and put in a small piece of butter; when cool,  sweeten to taste; if liked, add a little lemon-peel, cinnamon or nutmeg; line your plate with thin crust, put in the filling, cover with crust and bake in a quick oven; sift sugar over it when served.
PINEAPPLE PIE
A grated pineapple, its weight in sugar, half its weight in butter, one cupful of cream, five eggs; beat the batter to a creamy froth, add the sugar and yolks of the eggs, continue beating till very light;  add the cream, the pineapple grated and the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth. Bake with an under crust. Eat cold.
GRAPE PIE
Pop the pulps out of the skins into one dish and put the skins into another. Then simmer the pulp a little over the fire to soften it; remove it and rub it through a colander to separate it from the seeds. Then put the skins and pulp together and they are ready for pies or for canning or putting in jugs for other use. Fine for pies.
DAMSON OR PLUM PIE
Stew the damsons whole in water only sufficient to prevent their burning; when tender and while hot, sweeten them with sugar and let them stand until they become cold; then pour them into pie dishes lined with paste, dredge flour upon them, cover them with the same paste, wet and pinch together the edges of the paste, cut a slit in the centre of the cover through which the vapor may escape and bake twenty minutes.
PEACH PIE
DRIED FRUIT PIES
Wash the fruit thoroughly, soak over night in water enough to cover. In the morning stew slowly until nearly done in the same water. Sweeten to taste. The crust, both upper and under, should be rolled thin; a thick crust to a fruit pie is undesirable.
RIPE BERRY PIES
All made the same as “Cherry Pie.” Line your pie-tin with crust, fill half full of berries, shake over a tablespoonful of sifted flour (if very juicy) and as much sugar as is necessary to sweeten sufficiently. Now fill up the crust to the top, making quite full. Cover with crust and bake about forty minutes. Huckleberry and blackberry pies are improved by putting into them a little ginger and cinnamon.
JELLY AND PRESERVED FRUIT PIES
Preserved fruit requires no baking; hence, always bake the shell and put in the sweetmeats afterwards; you can cover with whipped cream, or bake a top crust shell; the former is preferable for delicacy.
CRANBERRY PIE
Take fine, sound, ripe cranberries and with a sharp knife split each one until you have a heaping coffeecupful; put them in a vegetable dish or basin; put over them one cupful of white sugar, half a cup of water, a tablespoon full of sifted flour; stir it all together and put into your crust. Cover with an upper crust and bake slowly in a moderate oven. You will find this the true way of making a cranberry pie. Newport Style.
CRANBERRY TART PIE
After having washed and picked over the berries, stew them well in a little water, just enough to cover them; when they burst open and become soft, sweeten them with plenty of sugar, mash them smooth (some prefer them not mashed); line your pie-plates with thin puff paste, fill them and lay strips of paste across the top. Bake in a moderate oven. Or you may rub them through a colander to free them from the skins.
GOOSEBERRY PIE
Can be made the same as “Cranberry Tart Pie,” or an upper crust can be put on before baking. Serve with boiled custard or a pitcher of good sweet cream.
STEWED PUMPKIN OR SQUASH FOR PIES
Deep-colored pumpkins are generally the best. Cut a pumpkin or squash in half, take out the seeds, then cut it up in thick slices, pare the outside and cut again in small pieces. Put it into a large pot or saucepan with a very little water; let it cook slowly until tender. Now set the pot on the back of the stove, where it will not burn, and cook slowly, stirring often until the moisture is dried out and the pumpkin looks dark and red. It requires cooking a long time, at least half a day, to have it dry and rich. When cool press through a colander.
BAKED PUMPKIN OR SQUASH FOR PIES
Cut up in several pieces, do not pare it; place them on baking tins and set them in the oven; bake slowly until soft, then take them out, scrape all the pumpkin from the shell, rub it through a colander. It will be fine and light and free from lumps.
PUMPKIN PIE. No. 1
For three pies: One quart of milk, three cupfuls of boiled and strained pumpkin, one and one-half cupfuls of sugar, one-half cupful of molasses, the yolks and whites of four eggs beaten separately, a little salt, one tablespoonful each of ginger and cinnamon. Beat all together and bake with an under crust. Boston marrow or Hubbard squash may be substituted for pumpkin and are much preferred by many, as possessing a less strong flavor.
PUMPKIN PIE. No. 2
One quart of stewed pumpkin pressed through a sieve, nine eggs, whites and yolks beaten separately, two scant quarts of milk, one teaspoonful of mace, one teaspoonful of cinnamon and the same of nutmeg, one and one-half cupfuls of white sugar, or very light brown. Beat all well together and bake in crust without cover. A tablespoonful of brandy is a great improvement to pumpkin, or squash pies.
PUMPKIN PIE WITHOUT EGGS
One quart of properly stewed pumpkin pressed through a colander; to this add enough good, rich milk, sufficient to moisten it enough to fill two good-sized earthen pie-plates, a teaspoonful of salt, half a cupful of molasses or brown sugar, a tablespoonful of ginger, one teaspoonful of cinnamon or nutmeg. Bake in a moderately slow oven three-quarters of an hour.
SQUASH PIE
One pint of boiled dry squash, one cupful of brown sugar, three eggs, two tablespoonfuls of molasses, one tablespoonful of melted butter one tablespoonful of ginger, one teaspoonful of cinnamon, a pinch of salt and one pint of milk. This makes two pies, or one large deep one.
SWEET POTATO PIE
One pound of steamed sweet potatoes finely mashed, two cups sugar, one cup cream, one-half cup butter, three well-beaten eggs, flavor with lemon or nutmeg and bake in pastry shell. Fine.
COOKED MEAT FOR MINCE PIES
In order to succeed in having good mince pie, it is quite essential to cook the meat properly, so as to retain its juices and strength of flavor. Select four pounds of lean beef, the neck piece is as good as any; wash it and put it into a kettle with just water enough to cover it; take off the scum as it reaches the boiling point, add hot water from time to time, until it is tender, then season with salt and pepper; take off the cover and let it boil until almost dry, or until the juice has boiled back into the meat. When it looks as though it was beginning to fry in its own juice, it is time to take up and set aside to get cold, which should be done the day before needed. Next day, when making the mince meat, the bones, gristle and stringy bits should be well picked out before chopping.
MINCE PIES. No. 1
The “Astor House,” some years ago, was famous for its “mince pies.” The chief pastry cook at that time, by request, published the recipe. I find that those who partake of it never fail to speak in laudable terms of the superior excellence of this recipe when strictly followed. Four pounds of lean boiled beef chopped fine, twice as much of chopped green tart apples, one pound of chopped suet, three pounds of raisins, seeded, two pounds of currants picked over, washed and dried, half a pound of citron, cut up fine, one pound of brown sugar, one quart of cooking molasses, two quarts of sweet cider, one pint of boiled cider, one tablespoonful of salt, one tablespoonful of pepper, one tablespoonful of mace, one tablespoonful of allspice and four tablespoonfuls of cinnamon, two grated nutmegs, one tablespoonful of cloves; mix thoroughly and warm it on the range until heated through. Remove from the fire and when nearly cool, stir in a pint of good brandy and one pint of Madeira wine. Put into a crock, cover it tightly and set it in a cold place where it will not freeze, but keep perfectly cold. Will keep good all winter. Chef de Cuisine, Astor House, N. Y. Approximately 1904
MINCE PIES. No. 2
Two pounds of lean fresh beef, boiled and, when cold, chopped fine. One pound of beef suet, cleared of strings and minced to powder. Five pounds of apples, pared and chopped, two pounds of raisins,  seeded and chopped, one pound of Sultana raisins, washed and picked over, two pounds of currants washed and carefully picked over, three quarters of a pound of citron cut up fine, two tablespoonfuls cinnamon, one of powdered nutmeg, two of mace, one of cloves, one of allspice, one of fine salt, two and a quarter pounds of brown sugar, one quart brown sherry, one pint best brandy. Mince-meat made by this recipe will keep all winter. Cover closely in a jar and set in a cool place.
MOCK MINCE MEAT WITHOUT MEAT
One cupful of cold water, half a cupful of molasses, half a cupful of brown sugar, half a cupful of cider vinegar, two-thirds of a cupful of melted butter, one cupful of raisins seeded and chopped,  one egg beaten light, half a cupful of rolled cracker crumbs, a teaspoonful of cinnamon, a teaspoonful each of cloves, allspice, nutmeg, salt and black pepper. Put the saucepan on the fire with the water and raisins; let them cook a few minutes, then add the sugar and molasses, then the vinegar, then the other ingredients; lastly, add a wine-glassful of brandy. Very fine.
FRUIT TURNOVERS (Suitable for Picnics.)
Make a nice puff paste; roll it out the usual thickness, as for pies; then cut it out into circular pieces about the size of a small tea saucer; pile the fruit on half of the paste, sprinkle over some sugar, wet the edges and turn the paste over. Press the edges together, ornament them and brush the turnovers over with the white of  an egg; sprinkle over sifted sugar and bake on tins, in a brisk oven, for about twenty minutes. Instead of putting the fruit in raw, it may be boiled down with a little sugar first and then enclosed in the crust; or jam of any kind may be substituted for fresh fruit.
PLUM CUSTARD TARTLETS
One pint of greengage plums, after being rubbed through a sieve, one large cup of sugar, the yolks of two eggs well beaten. Whisk all together until light and foamy, then bake in small patty-pans shells of puff paste a light brown. Then fill with the plum paste, beat the two whites until stiff, add two tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar, spread over the plum paste and set the shells into a moderate oven for a few moments. These are much more easily handled than pieces of pie or even pies whole, and can be packed nicely for carrying.
LEMON TARTLETS. No. 1
Put a quart of milk into a saucepan over the fire. When it comes to the boiling point put into it the following mixture: Into a bowl put a heaping tablespoonful of flour, half a cupful of sugar and a pinch of salt. Stir this all together thoroughly; then add the beaten yolks of six eggs; stir this one way into the boiling milk until cooked to a thick cream; remove from the fire and stir into it the grated rind and juice of one large lemon. Have ready baked and hot some puff paste tart shells. Fill them with the custard and cover each with a meringue made of the whites of the eggs, sweetened with four tablespoonfuls of sugar. Put into the oven and bake a light straw color.
LEMON TARTLETS. No. 2
Mix well together the juice and grated rind of two lemons, two cupfuls of sugar, two eggs and the crumbs of sponge cake; beat it all together until smooth; put into twelve patty-pans lined with puff paste and bake until the crust is done.
ORANGE TARTLETS
Take the juice of two large oranges and the grated peel of one, three-fourths of a cup of sugar, a tablespoonful of butter; stir in a good teaspoonful of cornstarch into the juice of half a lemon and add to the mixture. Beat all well together and bake in tart shells without cover.
MERINGUE CUSTARD TARTLETS
Select deep individual pie-tins; fluted tartlet pans are suitable for custard tarts, but they should be about six inches in diameter and from two to three inches deep. Butter the pan and line it with ordinary puff paste, then fill it with a custard made as follows: Stir gradually into the beaten yolks of six eggs two tablespoonfuls of flour, a salt spoonful of salt and half a pint of cream. Stir until free from lumps and add two tablespoonfuls of sugar; put the saucepan on the range and stir until the custard coats the spoon. Do not let it boil or it will curdle. Pour it in a bowl, add a few drops of vanilla flavoring and stir until the custard becomes cold; fill the lined mold with this and bake in a moderate oven. In the meantime, put the whites of the eggs in a bright copper vessel and beat thoroughly, using a baker’s wire egg-beater for this purpose. While beating, sprinkle in lightly half a pound of sugar and a dash of salt. When the paste is quite firm, spread a thin layer of it over the tart and decorate the top with the remainder by squeezing it through a paper funnel. Strew a little powdered sugar over the top, return to the oven, and when a delicate yellow tinge remove from the oven and when cold serve.
BERRY TARTS
Line small pie-tins with pie crust and bake. Just before ready to use fill the tarts with strawberries, blackberries, raspberries, or whatever berries are in season. Sprinkle over each tart a little sugar; after adding berries add also to each tart a tablespoonful of sweet cream. They form a delicious addition to the breakfast table.
CREAM STRAWBERRY TARTS
After picking over the berries carefully, arrange them in layers in a deep pie-tin lined with puff paste, sprinkling sugar thickly between each layer: fill the pie-tin pretty full, pouring in a quantity of the juice: cover with a thick crust, with a slit in the top and bake. When the pie is baked, pour into the slit in the top of the pie the following cream mixture: Take a small cupful of the cream from  the top of the morning’s milk, heat it until it comes to a boil, then stir into it the whites of two eggs beaten light, also a tablespoonful  of white sugar and a teaspoonful of cornstarch wet in cold milk.  Boil all together a few moments until quite smooth; set it aside and when cool pour it into the pie through the slit in the crust. Serve it cold with powdered sugar sifted over it. Raspberry, blackberry and whortleberry may be made the same.
GREEN GOOSEBERRY TART
Top and tail the gooseberries. Put into a porcelain kettle with enough water to prevent burning and stew slowly until they break. Take them off, sweeten well and set aside to cool. When cold pour into pastry shells and bake with a top crust of puff paste. Brush all over with beaten egg while hot, set back in the oven to glaze for three minutes. Eat cold.
COCONUT TARTS
Take three coconuts, the meats grated, the yolks of five eggs, half a cupful of white sugar, season, a wine-glass of milk; put the butter in cold and bake in a nice puff paste.
CHOCOLATE TARTS
Four eggs, whites and yolks, one-half cake of Baker’s chocolate, grated, one tablespoonful of cornstarch, dissolved in water, three tablespoonfuls of milk, four of white sugar, two teaspoonfuls of vanilla, one saltspoonful of salt, one-half teaspoonful of cinnamon, one teaspoonful of butter, melted; rub the chocolate smooth in the milk and heat to boiling over the fire, then stir in the cornstarch. Stir five minutes until well thickened, remove from the fire and pour into a bowl. Beat all the yolks and the whites of two eggs well with the sugar, and when the chocolate mixture is almost cold, put all together with the flavoring and stir until light. Bake in open shells of pastry. When done, cover with a meringue made of the whites of two eggs and two tablespoonfuls of sugar flavored with a teaspoonful of lemon juice. Eat cold. These are nice for tea, baked in patty-pans.
MAIDS OF HONOR
Take one cupful of sour milk, one of sweet milk, a tablespoonful of melted butter, the yolks of four eggs, juice and rind of one lemon and a small cupful of white pounded sugar. Put both kinds of milk together in a vessel, which is set in another and let it become sufficiently heated to set the curd, then strain off the milk, rub the curd through a strainer, add butter to the curd, the sugar, well-beaten eggs and lemon. Line the little pans with the richest of puff paste and fill with the mixture; bake until firm in the centre, from ten to fifteen minutes.
GERMAN FRUIT PIE
Sift together a heaping teaspoonful of baking powder and a pint of flour; add a piece of butter as large as a walnut, a pinch of salt, one beaten egg and sweet milk enough to make a soft dough.  Roll it out half an inch thick; butter a square biscuit tin and cover the bottom and sides with the dough; fill the pan with quartered juicy apples, sprinkle with a little cinnamon and molasses. Bake in rather quick oven until the crust and apples are cooked a light brown. Sprinkle a little sugar over the top five minutes before removing from the oven. Ripe peaches are fine used in the same manner.
APPLE TARTS
Pare, quarter, core and boil in half a cupful of water, until quite soft, ten large, tart apples; beat until very smooth and add the yolks of six eggs, or three whole ones, the juice and grated outside rind of two lemons, half a cap of butter; one and a half of sugar (or more, if not sufficiently sweet); beat all thoroughly, line patty-pans with a puff paste and fill; bake five minutes in a hot oven. Meringue. If desired very nice, cover them when removed from the oven with the meringue made of the whites of three eggs remaining, mixed with three tablespoonfuls of sugar; return to the oven and delicately brown.
CREAM TARTS
Make a rich, brittle crust, with which cover your patty-pans, smoothing off the edges nicely and bake well. While these “shells” are cooling, take one teacupful (more or less according to the number of tarts you want) of perfectly sweet and fresh cream, skimmed free of milk; put this into a large bowl or other deep dish, and with your egg-beater whip it to a thick, stiff froth; add a heaping tablespoonful of fine white sugar, with a teaspoonful (a small one) of lemon or vanilla. Fill the cold shells with this and set in a cool place till tea is ready.
OPEN JAM TARTS
Time to bake until paste loosens from the dish. Line shallow tin dish with puff paste, put in the jam, roll out some of the paste, wet it lightly with the yolk of an egg beaten with a little milk, and a tablespoonful of powdered sugar. Cut it in narrow strips, then lay them across the tart, lay another strip around the edge, trim off outside, and bake in a quick oven.
CHESS CAKES
Peel and grate one cocoanut; boil one pound of sugar fifteen minutes in two-thirds of a pint of water; stir in the grated cocoanut and boil fifteen minutes longer. While warm, stir in a quarter of a pound of butter; add the yolks of seven eggs well beaten. Bake in patty pans with rich paste. If prepared cocoanut is used, take one and a  half coffeecupfuls. Fine.
 
Regarding Recipes – No warranties are expressed or implied. Information is provided as a “best effort”. We endeavor to be accurate, but inaccuracy may happen. Results may differ due to ingredients, oven temps, altitude, water quality, and skill level of the cook. Please note that you may have to find substitutes for some ingredients, an example being lard (unless that is your preference). Substitutions may also change the dynamics of the recipe, requiring experimentation.

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Bread Recipes

BREAD – Recipes From Much Earlier Times ~1900 – Among all civilized people bread has become an article of food of the first necessity; and properly so, for it constitutes of itself a complete life sustainer, the gluten, starch and sugar which it contains representing ozotized and hydro-carbonated nutrients, and combining the sustaining powers of the animal and vegetable kingdoms in one product. As there is no one article of food that enters so largely into our daily fare as bread, so no degree of skill in preparing other articles can compensate for lack of knowledge in the art of making good, palatable and nutritious bread. A little earnest attention to the subject will enable any one to comprehend the theory, and then ordinary care in practice will make one familiar with the process.
 
GENERAL DIRECTIONS – The first thing required for making wholesome bread is the utmost cleanliness; the next is the soundness and sweetness of all the ingredients used for it; and, in addition to these, there must be attention and care through the whole process.

Salt is always used in bread-making, not only on account of its flavor, which destroys the insipid raw state of the flour, but because it makes the dough rise better.

In mixing with milk, the milk should be boiled–not simply scalded, but heated to boiling over hot water–then set aside to cool before mixing. Simple heating will not prevent bread from turning sour in the rising, while boiling will act as a preventative. So the milk should be thoroughly scalded, and should be used when it is just blood warm.

Too small a proportion of yeast, or insufficient time allowed for the dough to rise, will cause the bread to be heavy.

The yeast must be good and fresh if the bread is to be digestible and nice. Stale yeast produces, instead of vinous fermentation, an acetous fermentation, which flavors the bread and makes it disagreeable. A poor, thin yeast produces an imperfect fermentation, the result being a heavy, unwholesome loaf.

If either the sponge or the dough be permitted to overwork itself–that is to say, if the mixing and kneading be neglected when it has reached the proper point for either–sour bread will probably be the consequence in warm weather, and bad bread in any. The goodness will also be endangered by placing it so near a fire as to make any part of it hot, instead of maintaining the gentle and equal degree of heat required for its due fermentation.

Heavy bread will also most likely be the result of making the dough very hard and letting it become quite cold, particularly in winter.

An almost certain way of spoiling dough is to leave it half made, and to allow it to become cold before it is finished. The other most common causes of failure are using yeast which is no longer sweet, or which has been frozen, or has had hot liquid poured over it.

As a general rule, the oven for baking bread should be rather quick and the heat so regulated as to penetrate the dough without hardening the outside. The oven door should not be opened after the bread is put in until the dough is set or has become firm, as the cool air admitted will have an unfavorable effect upon it.

The dough should rise and the bread begin to brown after about fifteen minutes, but only slightly. Bake from fifty to sixty minutes and have it brown, not black or whitey brown, but brown all over when well baked.

When the bread is baked, remove the loaves immediately from the pans and place them where the air will circulate freely around them, and thus carry off the gas which has been formed, but is no longer needed.

Never leave the bread in the pan or on a pin table to absorb the odor of the wood. If you like crusts that are crisp do not cover the loaves; but to give the soft, tender, wafer-like consistency which many prefer, wrap them while still hot in several thicknesses of bread-cloth. When cold put them in a stone jar, removing the cloth, as that absorbs the moisture and gives the bread an unpleasant taste and odor. Keep the jar well covered and carefully cleansed from crumbs and stale pieces. Scald and dry it thoroughly every two or three days. A yard and a half square of coarse table linen makes the best bread-cloth. Keep in good supply; use them for no other purpose.

Some people use scalding water in making wheat bread; in that case the flour must be scalded and allowed to cool before the yeast is added, then proceed as above. Bread made in this manner keeps moist in summer much longer than when made in the usual mode.

Home-made yeast is generally preferred to any other. Compressed yeast, as now sold in most grocery stores, makes fine light, sweet bread, and is a much quicker process, and can always be had fresh, being made fresh every day.

 
WHEAT BREAD – Sift the flour into a large bread-pan or bowl; make a hole in the middle of it, and pour in the yeast in the ratio of half a teacupful of yeast to two quarts of flour; stir the yeast lightly, then pour in your “wetting,” either milk or water, as you choose,–which use warm in winter and cold in summer; if you use water as “wetting,” dissolve in it a bit of butter of the size of an egg, if you use milk, no butter is necessary; stir in the “wetting” very lightly, but do not mix all the flour into it; then cover the pan with a thick blanket or towel, and set it, in winter, in a warm place to rise, this is called “putting the bread in sponge.” In summer the bread should not be wet over night. In the morning add a teaspoonful of salt and mix all the flour in the pan with the sponge, kneading it well; then let it stand two hours or more until it has risen quite light; then remove the dough to the molding-board and mold it for a long time, cutting it in pieces and molding them together again and again, until the dough is elastic under the pressure of your hand, using as little flour as possible; then make it into loaves, put the loaves into baking-tins. The loaves should come half way up the pan, and they should be allowed to rise until the bulk is doubled. When the loaves are ready to put into the oven, the oven should be ready to receive them. It should be hot enough to brown a teaspoonful of flour in five minutes. The heat should be greater at the bottom than at the top of the oven, and the fire so arranged as to give sufficient strength of heat through the baking without being replenished. Let them stand ten or fifteen minutes, prick them three or four times with a fork, bake in a quick oven from forty-five to sixty minutes.

If these directions are followed, you will obtain sweet, tender and wholesome bread. If by any mistake the dough becomes sour before you are ready to bake it, you can rectify it by adding a little dry super-carbonate of soda, molding the dough a long time to distribute the soda equally throughout the mass. All bread is better, if naturally sweet, without the soda; but sour bread you should never eat, if you desire good health.

Keep well covered in a tin box or large stone crock, which should be wiped out every day or two, and scalded and dried thoroughly in the sun once a week.

 
COMPRESSED YEAST BREAD – Use for two loaves of bread three quarts of sifted flour, nearly a quart of warm water, a level tablespoonful of salt and an ounce of compressed yeast. Dissolve the yeast in a pint of lukewarm water; then stir into it enough flour to make a thick batter. Cover the bowl containing the batter or sponge with a thick folded cloth and set it in a warm place to rise; if the temperature of heat is properly attended to the sponge will be foamy and light in half an hour. Now stir into this sponge the salt dissolved in a little warm water, add the rest of the flour and sufficient warm water to make the dough stiff enough to knead; then knead it from five to ten minutes, divide it into loaves, knead again each loaf and put them into buttered baking tins; cover them with a double thick cloth and set again in a warm place to rise twice their height, then bake the same as any bread. This bread has the advantage of that made of home-made yeast as it is made inside of three hours, whereas the other requires from twelve to fourteen hours.
 
HOME MADE YEAST – Boil six large potatoes in three pints of water. Tie a handful of hops in a small muslin bag and boil with the potatoes; when thoroughly cooked drain the water on enough flour to make a thin batter; set this on the stove or range and scald it enough to cook the flour (this makes the yeast keep longer); remove it from the fire and when cool enough, add the potatoes mashed, also half a cup of sugar, half a tablespoonful of ginger, two of salt and a teacupful of yeast. Let it stand in a warm place, until it has thoroughly risen, then put it in a large mouthed jug and cork tightly; set away in a cool place. The jug should be scalded before putting in the yeast. Two-thirds of a coffeecupful of this yeast will make four loaves.
 
UNRIVALED YEAST – On one morning boil two ounces of the best hops in four quarts of water half an hour; strain it, and let the liquor cool to the consistency of new milk; then put it in an earthen bowl and add half a cupful of salt and half a cupful of brown sugar; beat up one quart of flour with some of the liquor; then mix all well together, and let it stand till the third day after; then add six medium-sized potatoes, boiled and mashed through a colander; let it stand a day, then strain and bottle and it is fit for use. It must be stirred frequently while it is making, and kept near a fire. One advantage of this yeast is its spontaneous fermentation, requiring the help of no old yeast; if care be taken to let it ferment well in the bowl, it may immediately be corked tightly. Be careful to keep it in a cool place. Before using it shake the bottle up well. It will keep in a cool place two months, and is best the latter part of the time. Use about the same quantity as of other yeast.
 
DRIED YEAST OR YEAST CAKES – Make a pan of yeast the same as “Home-Made Yeast;” mix in with it corn meal that has been sifted and dried, kneading it well until it is thick enough to roll out, when it can be cut into cakes or crumble up. Spread out and dry thoroughly in the shade; keep in a dry place.When it is convenient to get compressed yeast, it is much better and cheaper than to make your own, a saving of time and trouble. Almost all groceries keep it, delivered to them fresh made daily.
 
SALT-RAISING BREAD – While getting breakfast in the morning, as soon as the tea-kettle has boiled, take a quart tin cup or an earthen quart milk pitcher, scald it, then fill one-third full of water about as warm as the finger could be held in; then to this add a teaspoonful of salt, a pinch of brown sugar and coarse flour enough to make a batter of about the right consistency for griddle-cakes. Set the cup, with the spoon in it, in a closed vessel half filled with water moderately hot, but not scalding. Keep the temperature as nearly even as possible and add a teaspoonful of flour once or twice during the process of fermentation. The yeast ought to reach to the top of the bowl in about five hours. Sift your flour into a pan, make an opening in the centre and pour in your yeast. Have ready a pitcher of warm milk, salted, or milk and water (not too hot, or you will scald the yeast germs), and stir rapidly into a pulpy mass with a spoon. Cover this sponge closely and keep warm for an hour, then knead into loaves, adding flour to make the proper consistency. Place in warm, well-greased pans, cover closely and leave till it is light. Bake in a steady oven, and when done let all the hot steam escape. Wrap closely in damp towels and keep in closed earthen jars until it is wanted.This, in our grandmothers’ time, used to be considered the prize bread, on account of its being sweet and wholesome and required no prepared yeast to make it. Nowadays yeast-bread is made with very little trouble, as the yeast can be procured at almost any grocery.
 
BREAD FROM MILK YEAST – At noon the day before baking, take half a cup of corn meal and pour over it enough sweet milk boiling hot to make it the thickness of batter-cakes. In the winter place it where it will keep warm. The next morning before breakfast pour into a pitcher a pint of boiling water; add one teaspoonful of soda and one of salt. When cool enough so that it will not scald the flour, add enough to make a stiff batter; then add the cup of meal set the day before. This will be full of little bubbles. Then place the pitcher in a kettle of warm water, cover the top with a folded towel and put it where it will keep warm, and you will be surprised to find how soon the yeast will be at the top of the pitcher. Then pour the yeast into a bread-pan; add a pint and a half of warm water, or half water and half milk, and flour enough to knead into loaves. Knead but little harder than for biscuit and bake as soon as it rises to the top of the tin. This recipe makes five large loaves. Do not allow it to get too light before baking, for it will make the bread dry and crumbling. A cup of this milk yeast is excellent to raise buckwheat cakes.
 
GRAHAM BREAD – One teacupful of wheat flour, one-half teacupful of Porto Rico molasses, one-half cupful of good yeast, one teaspoonful of salt, one pint of warm water; add sufficient Graham flour to make the dough as stiff as can be stirred with a strong spoon; this is to be mixed at night; in the morning, add one teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in a little water; mix well, and pour into two medium-sized pans; they will be about half full; let it stand in a warm place until it rises to the top of the pans, then bake one hour in a pretty hot oven. This should be covered about twenty minutes when first put into the oven with a thick brown paper, or an old tin cover; it prevents the upper crust hardening before the loaf is well-risen. If these directions are correctly followed the bread will not be heavy or sodden, as it has been tried for years and never failed.
 
GRAHAM BREAD (Unfermented) – Stir together three heaping teaspoonfuls of baking powder, three cups of Graham flour and one cup of white flour; then add a large teaspoonful of salt and half a cup of sugar. Mix all thoroughly with milk or water into as stiff a batter as can be stirred with a spoon. If water is used, a lump of butter as large as a walnut may be melted and stirred into it. Bake immediately in well-greased pans.
 
BOSTON BROWN BREAD – One pint of rye flour, one quart of corn meal, one teacupful of Graham flour, all fresh; half a teacupful of molasses or brown sugar, a teaspoonful of salt, and two-thirds of a teacupful of home made yeast. Mix into as stiff a dough as can be stirred with a spoon, using warm water for wetting. Let it rise several hours, or over night; in the morning, or when light, add a teaspoonful of soda dissolved in a spoonful of warm water; beat it well and turn it into well greased, deep bread-pans, and let it rise again. Bake in a moderate oven from three to four hours.
 
BOSTON BROWN BREAD (Unfermented) – One cupful of rye flour, two cupfuls of corn meal, one cupful of white flour, half a teacupful of molasses or sugar, a teaspoonful of salt. Stir all together _thoroughly_, and wet up with sour milk; then add a level teaspoonful of soda dissolved in a tablespoonful of water. The same can be made of sweet milk by substituting baking powder for soda. The batter to be stirred as thick as can be with a spoon, and turned into well-greased pans.
 
VIRGINIA BROWN BREAD – One pint of corn meal; pour over enough boiling water to thoroughly scald it; when cool add one pint of light, white bread sponge, mix well together, add one cupful of molasses, and Graham flour enough to mold; this will make two loaves; when light, bake in a moderate oven one and a half hours.
 
RHODE ISLAND BROWN BREAD – Two and one-half cupfuls of corn meal, one and one-half cupfuls of rye meal, one egg, one cup of molasses, two teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar, one teaspoonful of soda, a little salt and one quart of milk. Bake in a covered dish, either earthen or iron, in a moderately hot oven three hours.
 
STEAMED BROWN BREAD – One cup of white flour, two of Graham flour, two of Indian meal, one teaspoonful of soda, one cup of molasses, three and a half cups of milk, a little salt. Beat well and steam for four hours. This is for sour milk; when sweet milk is used, use baking powder in place of soda.This is improved by setting it into the oven fifteen minutes after it is slipped from the mold. To be eaten warm with butter. Most excellent.
 
RYE BREAD – To a quart of warm water stir as much wheat flour as will make a smooth batter; stir into it half a gill of home-made yeast, and set it in a warm place to rise; this is called setting a sponge; let it be mixed in some vessel which will contain twice the quantity; in the morning, put three pounds and a half of rye flour into a bowl or tray, make a hollow in the centre, pour in the sponge, add a dessertspoonful of salt, and half a small teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in a little water; make the whole into a smooth dough, with as much warm water as may be necessary; knead it well, cover it, and let it set in a warm place for three hours; then knead it again, and make it into two or three loaves; bake in a quick oven one hour, if made in two loaves, or less if the loaves are smaller.
 
RYE AND CORN BREAD – One quart of rye meal or rye flour, two quarts of Indian meal, scalded (by placing in a pan and pouring over it just enough boiling water to merely wet it, but not enough to make it into a batter, stirring constantly with a spoon), one-half cup of molasses, two teaspoonfuls salt, one teacup yeast, make it as stiff as can be stirred with a spoon, mixing with warm water and let rise all night. In the morning add a level teaspoonful of soda dissolved in a little water; then put it in a large pan, smooth the top with the hand dipped in cold water; let it stand a short time and bake five or six hours. If put in the oven late in the day, let it remain all night. Graham may be used instead of rye, and baked as above. This is similar to the “Rye and Injun” of our grandmothers’ days, but that was placed in a kettle, allowed to rise, then placed in a covered iron pan upon the hearth before the fire, with coals heaped upon the lid, to bake all night.
 
FRENCH BREAD – Beat together one pint of milk, four tablespoonfuls of melted butter, or half butter and half lard, half a cupful of yeast, one teaspoonful of salt and two eggs. Stir into this two quarts of flour. When this dough is risen, make into two large rolls and bake as any bread. Cut across the top diagonal gashes just before putting into the oven.
 
TWIST BREAD – Let the bread be made as directed for wheat bread, then take three pieces as large as a pint bowl each; strew a little flour over the paste-board or table, roll each piece under your hands to twelve inches length, making it smaller in circumference at the ends than in the middle; having rolled the three in this way, take a baking-tin, lay one part on it, joint one end of each of the other two to it, and braid them together the length of the rolls and join the ends by pressing them together; dip a brush in milk and pass it over the top of the loaf; after ten minutes or so, set it in a quick oven and bake for nearly an hour.
 
NEW ENGLAND CORN CAKE – One quart of milk, one pint of corn meal, one teacupful of wheat flour, a teaspoonful of salt, two tablespoonfuls of melted butter. Scald the milk and gradually pour it on the meal; when cool add the butter and salt, also a half cup of yeast. Do this at night; in the morning beat thoroughly and add two well beaten eggs, and a half teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in a spoonful of water. Pour the mixture into buttered deep earthen plates, let it stand fifteen minutes to rise again, then bake from twenty to thirty minutes.
 
GERMAN BREAD – One pint of milk well boiled, one teacupful of sugar, two tablespoonfuls of nice lard or butter, two-thirds of a teacupful of baker’s yeast. Make a rising with the milk and yeast; when light, mix in the sugar and shortening, with flour enough to make as soft a dough as can be handled. Flour the paste-board well, roll out about one-half inch thick; put this quantity into two large pans; make about a dozen indentures with the finger on the top; put a small piece of butter in each, and sift over the whole one tablespoonful of sugar mixed with one teaspoonful of cinnamon. Let this stand for a second rising; when perfectly light, bake in a quick oven fifteen or twenty minutes.
 
CORN BREAD – Two cups of sifted meal, half a cup of flour, two cups of sour milk, two well-beaten eggs, half a cup of molasses or sugar, a teaspoonful of salt, two tablespoonfuls of melted butter. Mix the meal and flour smoothly and gradually with the milk, then the butter, molasses and salt, then the beaten eggs, and lastly dissolve a level teaspoonful of baking soda in a little milk and beat thoroughly altogether. Bake nearly an hour in well-buttered tins, not very shallow. This recipe can be made with sweet milk by using baking powder in place of soda.
 
VIRGINIA CORN BREAD – Three cups of white corn meal, one cup of flour, one tablespoonful of sugar, one teaspoonful of salt, two heaping teaspoonfuls of baking powder, one tablespoonful of lard, three cups of milk and three eggs. Sift together the flour, corn meal, sugar, salt and baking powder; rub in the lard cold, add the eggs well beaten and then the milk. Mix into a moderately stiff batter; pour it into well-greased, shallow baking pans (pie-tins are suitable). Bake from thirty to forty minutes.
 
BOSTON CORN BREAD – One cup of sweet milk, two of sour milk, two-thirds of a cup of molasses, one of wheat flour, four of corn meal and one teaspoonful of soda; steam for three hours, and brown a few minutes in the oven. The same made of sweet milk and baking powder is equally as good.
 
INDIAN LOAF CAKE – Mix a teacupful of powdered white sugar with a quart of rich milk, and cut up in the milk two ounces of butter, adding a saltspoonful of salt. Put this mixture into a covered pan or skillet, and set it on the fire till it is scalding hot. Then take it off, and scald with it as much yellow Indian meal (previously sifted) as will make it of the consistency of thick boiled mush. Beat the whole very hard for a quarter of an hour, and then set it away to cool.

While it is cooling, beat three eggs very light, and stir them gradually into the mixture when it is about as warm as new milk. Add a teacupful of good strong yeast and beat the whole another quarter of an hour, for much of the goodness of this cake depends on its being long and well beaten. Then have ready a tin mold or earthen pan with a pipe in the centre (to diffuse the heat through the middle of the cake). The pan must be very well-buttered as Indian meal is apt to stick. Put in the mixture, cover it and set it in a warm place to rise. It should be light in about four hours. Then bake it two hours in a moderate oven. When done, turn it out with the broad surface downwards and send it to table hot and whole. Cut it into slices and eat it with butter.

This will be found an excellent cake. If wanted for breakfast, mix it and set it to rise the night before. If properly made, standing all night will not injure it. Like all Indian cakes (of which this is one of the best), it should be eaten warm.

 
JOHNNIE CAKE – Sift one quart of Indian meal into a pan; make a hole in the middle and pour in a pint of warm water, adding one teaspoonful of salt; with a spoon mix the meal and water gradually into a soft dough; stir it very briskly for a quarter of an hour or more, till it becomes light and spongy; then spread the dough smoothly and evenly on a straight, flat board (a piece of the head of a flour-barrel will serve for this purpose); place the board nearly upright before an open fire and put an iron against the back to support it; bake it well; when done, cut it in squares; send it hot to table, split and buttered.Old Plantation Style.
 
SPIDER CORN-CAKE – Beat two eggs and one-fourth cup sugar together. Then add one cup sweet milk and one cup of sour milk in which you have dissolved one teaspoonful soda. Add a teaspoonful of salt. Then mix one and two-thirds cups of granulated corn meal and one-third cup flour with this. Put a spider or skillet on the range and when it is hot melt in two tablespoonfuls of butter. Turn the spider so that the butter can run up on the sides of the pan. Pour in the corn-cake mixture and add one more cup of sweet milk, but do not stir afterwards. Put this in the oven and bake from twenty to thirty-five minutes. When done, there should be a streak of custard through it.
 
SOUTHERN CORN MEAL PONE OR CORN DODGERS – Mix with cold water into a soft dough one quart of southern corn meal, sifted, a teaspoonful of salt, a tablespoonful of butter or lard melted. Mold into oval cakes with the hands and bake in a very hot oven, in well-greased pans. To be eaten hot. The crust should be brown.
 
RAISED POTATO-CAKE – Potato-cakes, to be served with roast lamb or with game, are made of equal quantities of mashed potatoes and of flour, say one quart of each, two tablespoonfuls of butter, a little salt and milk enough to make a batter as for griddle-cakes; to this allow half a teacupful of fresh yeast; let it rise till it is light and bubbles of air form; then dissolve half a teaspoonful of soda in a spoonful of warm water and add to the batter; bake in muffin tins. These are good also with fricasseed chicken; take them from the tins and drop in the gravy just before sending to the table.
 
Regarding Recipes – No warranties are expressed or implied. Information is provided as a “best effort”. We endeavor to be accurate, but inaccuracy may happen. Results may differ due to ingredients, oven temps, altitude, water quality, and skill level of the cook. Please note that you may have to find substitutes for some ingredients, an example being lard (unless that is your preference). Substitutions may also change the dynamics of the recipe, requiring experimentation.

Fruit Beverage Recipes

FRUIT BEVERAGE RECIPES From Earlier Times ~ 1900
Lemonade
1 cup sugar
1/2 cup lemon juice
1 pint water

Make syrup by boiling sugar and water twelve minutes; add fruit juice, cool, and dilute with ice-water to suit individual tastes. Lemon syrup may be bottled and kept on hand to use as needed.

Pineapple Lemonade
1 pint water
1 quart ice-water
1 cup sugar
1 can grated pineapple
Juice 3 lemons

Make syrup by boiling water and sugar ten minutes; add pineapple and lemon juice, cool, strain, and add ice-water.

Orangeade
Make syrup as for Lemonade. Sweeten orange juice with syrup, and dilute by pouring over crushed ice.
Mint Julep
1 quart water
1 cup orange juice
2 cups sugar
Juice 8 lemons
1 pint claret wine
1-1/2 cups boiling water
1 cup strawberry juice
12 sprigs fresh miut

Make syrup by boiling quart of water and sugar twenty minutes, Separate mint in pieces, add to the boiling water, cover, and let stand in warm place five minutes, strain, and add to syrup; add fruit juices, and cool. Pour into punch bowl, add claret, and chill with a large piece of ice; dilute with water. Garnish with fresh mint leaves and whole strawberries.

Claret Punch
1 quart cold water
Few shavings lemon rind
1/2 cup raisins
1-1/2 cups orange juice
2 cups sugar
1/2 cup lemon juice
2 inch piece stick cinnamon
1 pint claret wiue

Put raisins in cold water, bring slowly to boiling-point, and boil twenty minutes; strain, add sugar, cinnamon, lemon rind, and boil five minutes. Add fruit juice, cool, strain, pour in claret, and dilute with ice-water.

Fruit Punch I
1 quart cold water
2 cups sugar
1/2 cup lemon juice
2 cups chopped pineapple
1 cup orange juice

Boil water, sugar, and pineapple twenty minutes; add fruit juice, cool, strain, and dilute with ice water.

Fruit Punch II
1 cup water
2 cups strawberry syrup
2 cups sugar
Juice 5 lemons
1 cup tea infusion
Juice 5 oranges
1 quart Apollinaris
1 can grated pineapple
1 cup Maraschino cherries

Make syrup by boiling water and sugar ten minutes; add tea, strawberry syrup, lemon juice, orange juice, and pineapple; let stand thirty minutes, strain, and add ice-water to make oue and one-half gallons of liquid. Add cherries and Apollinaris. Serve in punchbowl, with large piece of ice. This quantity will serve fifty.

Fruit Punch III
1 cup sugar
1/3cup lemon juice
1 cup hot tea infusion
1 pint ginger ale
3/4 cup orange juice
1 pint Apollinaris
Few slices orange

Pour tea over sugar, and as soon as sugar is dissolved add fruit juices. Strain into punch-bowl over a large piece of ice, and just before serving add ale, Apollinaris, and slices of orange. For tea infusion use two teaspoons tea and one and one-fourth cups boiling water.

Fruit Punch IV
9 oranges
1-1/2 cups tea infusion
6 lemons
1-1/4 cups sugar
1 cup grated pineapple
1 cup hot water
1 cup raspberry syrup
1 quart Apollinaris

Mix juice of orauges and lemons with pineapple, raspberry syrup, and tea; then add a syrup made by boiling sugar and water fifteen minutes. Turn in punch bowl over a large piece of ice. Chill thoroughly, and just before serving a Apollinaris.

Ginger Punch
1 quart cold water
1/2 lb. Canton ginger
1 cup sugar
1/2 cup orange juice
1/2 cup lemon juice

Chop ginger, add to water and sugar, boil fifteen minutes; add fruit juice, cool, strain, and dilute with crushed ice.

Champagne Punch
1 cup water
2 tablespoons Orange Curacoa
2 cups sugar
Juice 2 lemons
1 quart California champagne
2 cups tea infusion
4 tablespoons brandy
Ice
2 tablespoons Medford rum
1 quart soda water

Make a syrup by boiling water and sugar ten minutes. Mix champagne, brandy, rum, Curacoa, lemon juice, and tea infusion. Sweeten to taste with syrup and pour into punch bowl over a large piece of ice. Just before serving add soda water.

Club Punch
1 cup water
1 quart Vichy
2 cups sugar
3 sliced oranges
1 quart Burgundy
1/2 can pineapple
1 cup rum
Juice 2 lemons
1/3 cup brandy
1 cup tea infusion
1/3 cup Benedictine
Ice

Make a syrup by boiling water and sugar ten minutes. Mix remaining ingredients, except ice, sweeten to taste with syrup, and pour into punch-bowl over a large piece of ice.

Unfermented Grape Juice
10 Ibs. grapes
1 cup water
3 lbs. sugar

Put grapes and water in granite stew-pan. Heat until stones and pulp separate; then strain through jelly bag, add sugar, heat to boiling-point, and bottle. This will make one gallon. When served, it should be diluted one-half with water.

Claret Cup
1 quart claret wine
2 tablespoous brandy
1/2 cup Curacoa
Sugar
1 quart Apollinaris
Mint leaves
1/3 cup orange juice
Cucumber rind
12 strawberries

Mix ingredients, except Apollinaris, using enough sugar to sweeten to taste. Stand on ice to chill, and add chilled Apollinaris just before
serving.

Sauterne Cup
1 quart soda water
2 tablespoons Orange Curacoa
2 cups Sauterne wine
1/2 cup sugar (scant)
Rind 1/2 orange
Mint leave
Rind 1/2 lemon
Few sllces orange
12 strawberries

Add Curacoa to rind of fruit and sugar; cover, and let stand two hours. Add Sauterne, strain, and stand on ice to chill. Add chilled soda water, mint leaves, slices of orange, and strawberries. The success of cups depends upon the addition of charged water just before serving.

Cider punch
1 quart new or bottled cider
Sugar
3/4 cup lemon juice
1 quart Apollinaris
Ice

Mix cider and lemon juice, and sweeten to taste. Strain into punch bowl over a large piece of ice. Just before serving add Apollinaris.

 
Regarding Recipes – No warranties are expressed or implied. Information is provided as a “best effort”. We endeavor to be accurate, but inaccuracy may happen. Results may differ due to ingredients, oven temps, altitude, water quality, and skill level of the cook.
 

Soup Recipes

Soup Recipes – Recipes From Much Earlier Times ~1900
The water in which all vegetables are boiled may be saved for the making of either thick or cream soups. It may also be used as the basis for stock, and when I speak of stock in this book I mean a vegetable stock – something that can be kept on hand to he used for purees or cream soups. An ordinary colander will answer for the draining of vegetables, but a puree-sieve should be used for thick vegetable or cream soups. It is quite difficult to make a perfectly clear, brilliant vegetable bouillon, but if the following recipes are observed in detail, the results will be very satisfactory.
Vegetable soups are more nutritious than meat soups. We shall divide these soups into three classes: Clear soups, which should be used at the beginning of a dinner or a heavy lunch; milk, or the so-called cream soups, to be used for luncheons or suppers where they are counted as part of the nutrition of the meal; thick purees, which may he used for dinner or lunch, and which contain sufficient nitrogen to take the place of meat.
STOCK
Scrape and chop fine one carrot; peel and chop one onion; wash and chop the outer portion and the green leaves of one head of celery and peel and chop two good-sized turnips. Put in your kettle a tablespoonful of sugar. Let the sugar burn and then add four tablespoonfuls of olive or peanut oil and all the vegetables; shake over the fire for at least half an hour until the vegetables are slightly browned. Then add two quarts of cold water, a half pint of canned tomatoes, or two whole tomatoes cut into pieces, one apple cored but not pared, a teaspoonful of salt and either a chopped green pepper or a dash of cayenne. Cover and simmer gently for one hour. Strain and stand aside to cool. This may be served as clear soup or it may be used half-and-half with milk for a cream soup, or it may be used for a puree in the place of milk, or for macaroni, rice or vermicelli soup, or reheated and used the same as consomme.
JULIENNE SOUP
Cut into shreds a young carrot; throw it into boiling water and boil until tender. Add two or three tablespoonfuls of nicely cooked green peas and a few shreds of lettuce. Heat a quart of stock; add the vegetables; season and serve.
TOMATO BOUILLON
Peel four good-sized tomatoes; cut them into halves and press out the seeds. Chop the tomatoes and add them to a quart of stock. Boil twenty minutes; drain carefully through a fine sieve; season with salt and pepper. Serve in bouillon cups with a tablespoonful of whipped cream on top.
MOCK CLAM BOUILLON
Scrape a dozen roots of salsify; put them at once in cold water to prevent discoloration. Cut into slices and put them in one quart of stock; add a teaspoonful of salt, a dash of cayenne and a saltspoonful of celery seed. Boil until tender; strain; reheat and serve in bouillon cups with a tablespoonful of whipped cream on top. The salsify or oyster-plant may be used for vegetable oysters, or may be served as a vegetable.
CONSOMME WITH ALMOND BALLS
24 almonds
1/2 pint stale bread-crumbs
Whites of two eggs
2 quarts stock
1 teaspoonful salt

Blanch and put the almonds through a meat grinder. Add them to the bread-crumbs; add the salt and the whites of the eggs unbeaten. Work this mixture until it is moist, and then roll into tiny balls. Brown them in hot oil; lift them with a skimmer and drain them on brown paper. Put them at once into the soup-tureen and pour over the stock that has been heated and seasoned.

CONSOMME WITH GERMAN FARINA BLOCKS
1 egg
4 tablespoonfuls farina
2 teaspoonfuls olive oil
1 quart stock
1/2 teaspoonful salt

Beat the egg without separating until light; then stir in the farina and the salt. Put the olive oil in a shallow frying pan. When hot, pour in the farina mixture. Push it on the back part of the stove where it will brown slowly. Then turn it as you would a pancake and brown it slowly all the other side. Cut the cake into cubes of a half inch, put them in the soup-tureen and pour over the stock heated and seasoned.

CONSOMME’ a la ROYAL
1 egg
1/2 teaspoonful onion juice
1 quart stock
1 saltspoonful salt
1/2 saltspoonful pepper

Beat the egg until the white and yolk are well mixed; add the onion juice, salt, pepper and two tablespoonfuls of milk. Turn the mixture into a small custard cup, stand it in a pan of hot water an d cook in the oven until the custard is set. Turn it out carefully and cut it into dice. Put these dice into the soup-tureen ancl pour over the hot stock.

IRISH SOUP
1 can green peas
1 saltspoonful celery seed, or Whites of two eggs
1 tablespoonful green tops of celery chopped fine
1quart stock
1/2 saltspoonful salt
1 saItspoonful pepper

Drain the peas carefully; wash them and drain again. Press them through a sieve sufficiently fine to reject the skin; add the salt, pepper and celery. Beat the ‘whites of the two eggs very lightly, add them to the peas, and turn them into a square tin basin or pan. Stand the pan in another of hailing water and cook in the oven for at least twenty min­utes. until the mixture is set. Let it stand in the pan until cool, then turn it out carefully on a board and cut it into blocks or fancy shapes. Bring- the stock to boiling-point, drop the blocks in and serve at once.

SAGO SOUP
This recipe will also answer for tapioca soup. Wash carefully two tablespoonfuls of sago or tapioca. Add to a quart of stock, bring to boiling – point and cook until transparent. Season anel serve.
BARLEY SOUP
2 tablespoonfuls pearl barley
1 quart stock

Wash the barley in cold water; cover it with boil­ing water; boil rapidly for five minutes and drain. Cover it again with fresh boiling water and let it cook slowly for at least two hours; drain. This water may be saved to use as barley water or it may be put aside to use in tomorrow’s stock. At serving time, heat a quart of stock, add the barley, let it boil five minutes, and serve.

INDIAN SOUP
1 tablespoonful peanut or other butter
1 large sour apple
1 teaspoonful (or sprig) thyme
1 quart stock
1 onion
Juice of half a lemon
1 teaspoonful curry powder
1 teaspoonful salt
2 tablespoonfuls rice

Put the butter in the kettle; add the onion, sliced; cook slowly without browning; then add the apple, cored and sliced, but not parcel; add all the season­ I11gs; stir for a moment and add the stock. Cover, bring to boiling point and simmer gently ten min­utes. Wash the rice; throw it into boiling water awl boil until tender. Drain it, put it in the soup tureen and strain over the hot soup. Many persons serve with this soup a large dish of boiled rice  and put a helping of rice in the centre of each soup-plate before ladling in the soup.

PORTUGUESE SOUP
1 quart stock
8 nice prunes
1 large onion or 3 leeks
1 teaspoonful salt
1 teaspoonful paprika

Wash the prunes and soak them in cold water over night. One hour before serving time, cut the onion or the leeks into slices; put them in the stock and cook on the back part of the stove. At serving time, acid the prunes, salt and paprika. Turn at once into the tureen. Have at the side of the tureen bits of toast at least two inches square. These must be toasted carefully in the oven until crisp to the centre. Put a square in the centre of each plate, ladle over the soup, allowing two prunes to each person. This quantity will serve four.

PUREE OF TOMATO
1 can tomatoes
1 small onion
2 tablespoonfuls butter
1 saltspoonful ground mace
2 tablespoonfuls flour
1 teaspoonful salt
1 saltspoonful pepper

Put all the ingredients, except the butter and flour, into a saucepan. Bring to boiling-point; acid the butter and flour, rubbed together. Stir and boil for five minutes. Strain through a fine sieve, pressing through as much of the pulp as possible. Reheat and serve with croutons, If fresh tomatoes are used, select eight good-sized tomatoes : cut them into pieces. It is not necessary to peel them. Cook twenty minutes before adding the thickening.

PEA AND TOMATO SOUP
1 can peas or 1 pint green peas
1 onion
1/2 pint chopped celery
1 quart stewed tomatoes, either canned or fresh
1 teaspoonful salt
2 tablespoonfuls flour
2 tablespoonfuls butter
1 saltspoonful pepper

Peel and chop the onion; put it with the tomatoes, peas and all the seasoning into a saucepan. Bring to boiling point and boil fifteen minutes. Add the butter and the flour, rubbed together. Cook ten minutes longer, and press through a sieve. Serve with croutons.

CELERY AND TOMATO SOUP
1 quart tomatoes
1 pint chopped celery
1 pint water
2 tablespoonfuls butter
2 tablespoonfuls flour
1 teaspoonful salt
1 saltspoonful pepper

Put the water, the celery and the tomatoes into a saucepan; stew thirty minutes and press through a sieve. Add the butter and flour, rubbed together. Reheat, season and strain into the tureen. Serve either with croutons or with puff-balls.

PUREE OF DRIED BEANS
Wash and soak one pint of soup beans over night. In the morning, cover them with fresh boiling water, boil five minutes; drain and throw the water away. Cover with two quarts of boiling water and cook until the beans are tender. Press through a colander. Return the soup to the kettle and add a teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper and a tablespoonful of either ordinary dairy butter or nut butter. Serve with croutons.
PUREE OF DRIED PEAS
Make the same as puree of dried beans.
PUREE OF LENTILS
Make precisely the same as puree of dried beans. Lentils cook more quickly than beans. If either of these purees settle, they are too thin; add a little thickening of flour, reheat and serve.
BLACK BEAN SOUP
1 pint black turtle beans
1 lemon
2 quarts stock
1 teaspoonful salt
2 hard-boiled eggs
1 saltspoonful pepper

Wash the beans and soak them over night. In the morning drain, cover with boiling water and boil thirty minutes; drain, throwing the water away. Add the stock and cook slowly for two hours. Press the whole through a colander and then through a sieve. Rinse the kettle and return the soup to it; add salt and pepper. Slice the eggs and the lemon; put them into the tureen, pour over the boiling thick soup and serve.

MEXICAN BEAN SOUP
Make precisely the same as black bean soup, using red kidney beans. Add, after the soup is strained and ready to serve, a Spanish sweet pepper, cut into strips.
VEGETABLE SOUP
1 carrot
1/2 pint peas
1 tomato
1 turnip
4 tablespoonfuls rice
1/2 pint fresh beans
1/2 teaspoonful salt
1 saltspoonful pepper
2 quarts water

Scrape the carrot, peel the turnip, and cut them into dice. Put them in a kettle with the water and beans; these may be young Lima beans, or just the ordinary kidney beans. Cook slowly thirty minutes. Add the tomato, peeled; and cut into bits, the peas, salt and pepper. Cover and cook thirty minutes longer. While these are cooking, boil the rice, drain it, and throw it into the soup. The soup is now ready to serve. Corn and white potatoes may also be added.

PEAS PORRIDGE
1 pint split peas
6 leeks, or 2 good-sized 0nions
2 slices bread
2 tablespoonfuls butter
1 head celery
1 pint mashed potatoes
2 quarts water
1 teaspoonful salt
1 saltspoonful pepper

Wash and soak the peas over night. Next morn­ing, put them in a kettle with the water. Cut the onions or leeks into slices; chop the green portion of the celery; put them in a Frying-pan with the butter that has been heated; stir until they are a golden brown. Put them into the soup-kettle with the peas; add the bread, salt and pepper. Cook slowly one and a half hours. Press through a puree sieve, returning the soup to the kettle; add the mashed; potatoes and bring to boiling-point. Strain through a fine sieve and serve at once with croutons. This should be a thick puree; if not, add a tablespoonful of butter and one of flour, rubbed together, just before bringing it to the last boil. Peas Porridge should be almost as thick as breakfast oatmeal or mush. It is highly nutritious; in fact, it has more than meat value. Served at the beginning of a dinner, one would only need a salad and dessert to make the meal complete.

GROSSMUTTER SOUP
2 young carrots
1 potato
1 quart boiling water
1 onion
2 tablespoonfuls butter
1 egg
1 bay leaf
1 teaspoonful kitchen bouquet or browning
2 slices bread
1 teaspoonful salt
1 saltspoonful pepper

Scrape and slice the carrots; peel and slice the potato. Put the butter in a shallow pan; when hot add the vegetables; shake until they are well browned; then put them into the soup-kettle with the water; add the bay leaf, the salt and pepper; simmer thirty minutes; press through a sieve; return to the kettle; add the kitchen bouquet. Cut the bread into dice; beat the egg without separating;add the bread, and stir until each piece of bread is covered with the egg. Lift the bread from the egg, drop it into the soup, bring to boiling-point, and serve.

CREAM OF ASPARAGUS SOUP
1 bundle asparagus
1 pint water
2 tablespoonfuls flour
2 tablespoonfuls butter
1 quart milk
1 slice onion
1 bay leaf
1 teaspoonful salt
1 saltspoonful pepper

Cut the tips from the asparagus and throw them into cold water; put them aside to use either for asparagus in ambush or for asparagus salad in tomatoes. Cut the remaining portion of the bundle into small pieces; wash them in cold water; put them in a kettle; add the pint of water and stew gently for half an hour. Press them through a colander, taking as much of the flesh as possible. Put the milk into a double boiler; add the bay leaf and the butter and flour, rubbed together; cook until it is slightly thickened; add the salt, the pepper, and the asparagus pulp; stir until hot, and serve. If overcooked, the soup will curdle. Many people like the asparagus tips; boiled in salted water, drained and added to the soup just at serving time.

CREAM OF CORN SOUP
6 ears (or 1 can) corn
1 slice onion
2 tablespoonfuls butter
2 tablespoonfuls flour
1 quart milk
1 teaspoonful salt
1 saltspoonful pepper

Score each row of grains through the centre and with a dull knife press out the pulp. Put the milk in a double boiler; when hot, add the corn, onion and the butter and flour, rubbed together; stir until the milk begins to thicken; cover and cook fifteen minutes. Add the salt and pepper, remove the onion, and serve with croutons.

CREAM OF GREEN PEA SOUP
1 pint shelled green peas
1 quart milk
1 pint water
1 slice onion
2 tablespoonfuls butter
2 tablespoonfuls flour
1 teaspoonful salt
1 saltspoonful pepper

Put the pods of the peas in the water and boil gently for fifteen minutes; strain. saving the water. To this add the peas and onion; cook fifteen minutes and press through a colander; add the milk to the pulp; put the whole in a double boiler; add the butter and flour, rubbed together. Stir and cook until the soup is creamy (about ten minutes). Add the salt and pepper and press through a fine sieve. Reheat and serve with croutons.

CREAM OF POTATO SOUP
4 medium-sized potatoes
1 sliced onion
The green portion of a head of celery or a saltspoonful of mashed celery seed
1 tablespoonful flour
1 tablespoonful butter
1 quart milk
1 bay leaf
1 teaspoonful salt
1 saltspoonful pepper

Pare the potatoes and drop into boiling water; boil rapidly five minutes; drain, throw the water away. Return the potatoes to the kettle; cover with a pint of water, add the onion, the bay leaf, celery and pepper. Cover the kettle and cook until the potatoes are tender. Press the whole through a colander. Put the milk in a double boiler; add the butter and flour, rubbed together. Add the potato and salt; cook until simmering hot and not a moment longer; strain the whole through a fine sieve. This soup may be kept warm in a double boiler for about ten minutes; it cannot be reheated after it is once cold.

CREAM OF TOMATO SOUP
1 quart milk
1 pint strained tomatoes
1 bay leaf
1 blade mace
1 teaspoonful sugar
1/4 teaspoonful baking soda
2 tablespoonfuls butter
2 tablespoonfuls flour
1 teaspoonful salt
1 saltspoonful pepper

Put the tomatoes in a saucepan; add bay leaf, salt, pepper and mace; simmer gently ten minutes. Put the milk in a double boiler; add the butter and flour, rubbed together; stir constantly until smooth and creamy. Strain the tomatoes into the tureen; add the sugar and soda and pour in quickly the hot thickened milk. Serve immediately. This soup cannot be kept long and cannot be reheated.

EMERALD SOUP
2 quarts spinach
1 quart milk
1 tablespoonful grated onion
2 tablespoonfuls butter
2 tablespoonfuls flour
1 teaspoonful salt
1 saltspoonful pepper

Cut the leaves from the spinach; wash thoroughly through several cold waters, each time lifting them up with the hand and throwing them in another pan of cold water. Put a good-sized kettle on the fire; when hot, throw in the spinach; cover and push it at once over a slow fire. Let it stand for fifteen minutes until the spinach is thoroughly wilted. Drain, saving the water that has exuded from the spinach. Chop the spinach very fine, then press it through a sieve. Put the milk in a double boiler; add the butter and flour, rubbed together; stir until you have a perfectly smooth creamy mixture; then add the spinach pulp and water, salt, pepper and onion. When very hot, serve. Lettuce or endive may be substituted for spinach, using two large heads.

SOUP SOUBISE
1 large Spanish onion, 3 Bermuda, or 3 white or brown-skinned onions
1 quart milk
1 pint water
2 tablespoonfuls butter
2 tablespoonfuls flour
1 teaspoonful salt
1 saltspoonful pepper

Peel the onions; cut them into slices and put in a saucepan with the salt and water; cook half an hour, until tender, and press through a sieve; add the milk, then the butter and flour, rubbed together, taking up a little of the soup and mixing it until smooth; add the pepper. Press the whole through a sieve, reheat and serve.

CREAM OF MUSHROOM SOUP
1/2 pound mushrooms (Agaricus campestris )
1 tablespoonful corn starch
2 tablespoonfuls butter
1 quart milk
1 teaspoonful salt
1 saltspoonful pepper

Wash the mushrooms but do not peel them; cut into thin slices, using all the good portion of the stem; put them, with the butter and salt, into a saucepan; cover closely and cook slowly twenty minutes. Add the milk and pepper. Moisten the cornstarch with a little cold milk; stir it into the hot mixture and cook slowly until the soup is the consistency of thick cream. Serve at once, ladling it over squares of toast, or pass with it whole wheat bread.

CHOWDERS
These thick soups are nice for luncheon or supper. or for a dinner where light vegetables follow. They have meat value. Pass ship-biscuit or unleavened bread, and olives, celery or radishes when serving chowder.
CORN CHOWDER
1 quart grated corn
4 good-sized potatoes
2 medium-sized onions
2 tablespoonfuls butter
1/2 pint boiling water
3 tablespoonfuls flour
1 pint milk
6 water-crackers, or 3 ship-biscuits
Yolks of 3 eggs
1 teaspoonful salt

Pare and cut the potatoes into dice; chop the onion; put a layer of potato in the kettle, then a sprinkling of onion, then a layer of corn, then potato, and so continue until all are in. Add the water; cover the kettle and place over a slow fire where the contents will simmer twenty minutes. Rub butter and flour together; add milk and salt; stir until boiling. When hot, take from the fire and add the egg yolks beaten with two tablespoonfuls of milk. Turn all into the tureen; crush the crackers and sprinkle over the top. Serve at once.

POTATO CHOWDER
6 medium-sized potatoes
1 large onion
1/2 pint chopped celery
1 pint water
1 teaspoonful salt
1 tablespoonful chopped parsley
2 tablespoonfuls butter
1 tablespoonful flour
1 quart milk

Pare and cut the potatoes into dice; chop the onion; put the butter in a shallow frying-pan; when hot add the onion; shake until it is slightly browned. Put a layer of potatoes in the bottom of the kettle, then a layer of celery, a little parsley, salt and onion, and so continue until all the materials are used. Add the water; cover the kettle and simmer twenty minutes. Do not stir. Add the milk, and when hot add the flour, moistened with a little cold milk, and the salt. Stir carefully until it reaches the boiling­ point, and serve at once. To give this dish meat value add the yolks of two eggs or a quarter of a pound of grated cheese just before taking from the fire.

TOMATO CHOWDER
6 large ripe tomatoes, or 1 can tomatoes
1 pint, or 1 can corn
1/2 pint chopped celery
3 tablespoonfuls butter
1 large onion
4 hard-boiled eggs
4 slices whole wheat bread
3 tablespoonfuls flour
1 teaspoonful salt
1 saltspoonful black pepper

Peel the tomatoes; cut them in halves and press out the seeds; cut each half into quarters; put these with the corn, celery and onion, chopped, in the kettle; cover and simmer half an hour; cut the bread into dice and toast in the oven until crisp. Rub the butter and flour together; add a little of the hot chowder; stir and add this to the ingredients in the kettle; stir until smooth and boiling. Add salt and pepper. Slice the eggs and put them in the tureen; pour in the chowder and put the toast over the top. Serve at once.

BRUNSWICK STEW
1/2 pint green lima beans
1/2 pint peas
6 ears corn
4 whole tomatoes
6 pods okra
2 good-sized onions
4 tablespoonfuls rice
2 tablespoonfuls butter
1 teaspoonful salt
1 saltspoonful pepper

Put half the butter in a saucepan; add the onion, chopped; shake until the onion is soft, not brown. Peel the tomatoes, cut them into halves, squeeze out the seeds, then cut each half into quarters; add to the butter and onion. Boil the beans and peas; add to the tomato and onion. Cut the okra into slices, add it to the tomato; cover, cook on the back part of the stove for thirty minutes. Then add the beans and peas that have been boiled and drained and the rice, washed. Score and press out the corn, add it, and if the stew is now thick, add a half pint of milk. Cover and cook until the corn is done (about twenty minutes), being very careful not to scorch. Add the remaining butter, salt and pepper. This is also very nice made with cocoanut milk or with vegetable stock.

Regarding Recipes – No warranties are expressed or implied. Information is provided as a “best effort”. We endeavor to be accurate, but inaccuracy may happen. Results may differ due to ingredients, oven temps, altitude, water quality, and skill level of the cook. Please note that you may have to find substitutes for some ingredients, an example being lard (unless that is your preference). Substitutions may also change the dynamics of the recipe requiring experimentation.

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Regarding Wine – No warranties are expressed or implied. Information is provided as a “best effort”. We endeavor to be accurate, but inaccuracy may happen. It is always prudent to check the information prior to use.